Translational research refers to translate scientific findings into practical setting. It is classified into T1 and T2 researches. T1 research refers to apply findings from laboratory into clinical studies that involve human subjects and often defined as “bench-to-bedside”. T2 research refers to utilizing findings of clinical studies to alter health practices in the community in an attempt to modify the standard of care or promote preventive practice on bases of findings of clinical trials. Translational research requires collaboration between laboratory and population-based investigators.
Knowledge in basic science is essential for successful T1 research. T1 research identifies potential relevant models to assess safety and efficacy of proposed regime. T1 research serves the foundation for clinical investigation because it identifies models and in vivo determines the effect of variable of interest under controlled conditions. T2 research involves applying findings of laboratory and clinical trials to target population and observe effects. It is important for T2 researchers to have adequate knowledge with respect to large-scale study design, multi-center investigations, and risk assessment.